December 7, 2022

Each era of BMW M3 has been powered by unimaginable engines, each a technical masterpiece and an absolute powerhouse of efficiency for its time, and right here we have a good time all of them.

Information from Efficiency BMW journal.

BMW M3 Engines

S14

Historical past

The S14’s backside finish relies across the tried-and-tested M10, although taken out to 2.3 litres due to a slight improve in bore and stroke. It’s bolted to what’s also known as an M88 head with two cylinders chopped off – meaning 4 valves per cylinder, double-overhead cams and particular person throttle our bodies. Designed by legendary engineer Paul Rosche, the S14 was made to do one factor and one factor solely – make the E30 M3 win DTM races. These bore and stroke dimensions had been chosen to provide the S14 the potential for stratospheric revs and robust energy and its character is sort of in contrast to virtually each different BMW engine. And, regardless of a number of measures to make it completely satisfied on the highway, there’s no hiding the truth that it’s a tough and prepared race engine by and thru.

The smallest S14 appeared within the E30 320iS, constructed completely for the Italian and Portuguese markets because the M3 wasn’t obtainable in these nations and so the 192hp 320iS was the following smartest thing. The M3’s 2.3-litre S14 was initially provided with 200hp – the Evo 1 (launched in February 1987) had the identical determine though featured a revised cylinder head, distinguishable by an ‘E’ solid into the pinnacle, slightly below the fourth throttle port. The Evo II was launched in March 1988 and with it, the S14 obtained a number of modifications – together with a rise in compression ratio, which resulted in 220hp. Distinguishable by its white rocker cowl with M-coloured stripes, this was the final word evolution of the two.3-litre manufacturing engine. The rationale for this was that in 1990 the M3 Sport Evolution was revealed and with it got here an enlarged S14, now sporting a set of pink HT leads and displacing 2467cc, achieved by enlarging the bore and becoming a longer-stroke crankshaft. Different modifications included bigger valves, extra aggressive cams and piston-cooling oil jets; the results of all this work was
a formidable 238hp.

Technical

When in comparison with the two.0-litre M10 engine, the S14’s bore and stroke had been each elevated – for the two.3, this alteration was from 89mm to 93.4mm and 80mm to 84mm respectively. The top is then successfully a chopped-down M88 merchandise – it options 16-valves, two chain-driven overhead cams with fastened timing and two throttle our bodies, every containing two butterflies. The two.0-litre S14 discovered within the 320iS, in the meantime, is successfully a short-stroke model of the two.3-litre engine, due to the 72.6mm crankshaft it makes use of.

The unique S14’s energy and torque figures trusted whether or not it was in a automotive fitted with a catalytic converter or not – the presence of 1 dropped peak energy and torque figures by round 5hp and 6lb ft. All later fashions got here with cats as customary.

The Evo engine was improved with a revised cylinder head, which didn’t change efficiency however improved different points. The Evo II’s modifications included new pistons to lift the compression ratio, an improved induction system, lightened flywheel and up to date engine administration – the 2302cc capability remained. This was probably the most highly effective of the two.3-litre S14s and got here fitted in not solely the Evo II itself however within the Ravaglia and Cecotto particular editions too.

The final word S14 was the Sport Evo’s enlarged model. The block’s bore was elevated and a longer-throw crankshaft was chosen, that means a capability of 2467cc was achieved – this pushed the M3 to the boundaries of the two.5-litre lessons it was designed for. The valves had been enlarged too, and the cams had been swapped for extra aggressive gadgets, 282° as a substitute of 268. Piston skirt-cooling oil jets additionally featured and peak energy stood at 238hp.

BMW M3 engines | E30 M3 tech spec:

S14B20

Capability: 1990cc
Bore: 93.4mm
Stroke: 72.6mm
Compression ratio: 10.8:1
Max energy: 192hp @ 6900rpm
Max torque: 155lb ft @ 4900rpm
Functions: E30 320iS

S14B23/EVO

Capability: 2302cc
Bore: 93.4mm
Stroke: 84mm
Compression ratio: 10.5:1
Max energy: 200hp @ 6750rpm
Max torque: 176lb ft @ 4750rpm
Functions: E30 M3, Evo

S14B23EVO2

Capability: 2302cc
Bore: 93.4mm
Stroke: 84mm
Compression ratio: 11.0:1
Max energy: 220hp @ 6750rpm
Max torque: 181lb ft @ 4750rpm
Functions: E30 M3 Evo II

S14B25

Capability: 2467cc
Bore: 95mm
Stroke: 87mm
Compression ratio: 10.2:1
Max energy: 238hp @ 7000rpm
Max torque: 177lb ft @ 4750rpm
Functions: E30 M3 Sport Evo

BMW E36 M3

S50

Historical past

After the E30 M3 and its storming S14, the automotive’s successor wanted a suitably spectacular engine. Whereas the E36 M3 might have been met with a lukewarm reception upon its launch, primarily as a result of huge change in course that BMW took when creating the automotive, the S50B30 and its B32 successor had been each extremely spectacular engines. The S50B30 arrived in 1992 and remained in use till 1995, with a special variation for North America and a pair for restricted manufacturing fashions. The S50B32 was used within the M3 3.2 Evo from 1995 to 1999 and within the Z3 M Coupé and Roadster from 1997 to 2001.

Technical

The S50 relies on its non-M M50 counterpart, with a cast-iron block however with numerous vital revisions. The most important M50 engine was the two.5 however for the S50 BMW elevated bore to 86mm and stroke to 85.8mm to take capability as much as 2990cc. Compression rose to 10.8:1 and the cylinder head was ported and polished whereas particular person throttle our bodies had been additionally fitted. Heavy-duty valve springs had been added together with single-Vanos, a dual-mass flywheel, free-flowing consumption and exhaust system, with Bosch Motronic M3.3 engine administration taking care of every little thing. This model of the S50B30 made 286hp at 7000rpm with 236lb ft of torque at 3600rpm. For the US-market E36 M3, BMW developed the S50B30USA; the 2 engines used comparable blocks and shared the identical capability however that’s the place the similarities ended. The B30USA used the much less advanced head and two-stage Vanos of the M50 in addition to retaining hydraulic lifters; it missed out on the person throttle our bodies and used a decrease compression ratio of 10.5:1. It developed 240hp at 6000rpm with 225lb ft of torque.

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There have been a number of particular variations of the S50B30 produced. For the E36 M3 GT, the engine was fitted with 264º cams, a BMW Motorsport dual-pickup oil pan, duocentric oil pumps and upgraded Vanos software program, which gave it 295hp at 7000rpm and 238lb ft of torque at 3900rpm. For the Australian-only E36 M3-R, the engine was tuned by BMW M and Schnitzer Motorsport and fitted with extra aggressive cams, revised consumption and exhaust ports, a light-weight flywheel and a dual-pickup oil pump. These modifications resulted in 324hp at 7200rpm and 258lb ft of torque at 4400rpm.

For the S50B32, BMW launched a number of revisions to enhance efficiency. Bore and stroke had been elevated to 86.4mm and 91mm for a complete capability of 3201cc whereas the compression ratio rose to 11.3:1. Double-Vanos was launched and light-weight pistons had been fitted together with graphite-coated con rods, bigger inlet valves, improved consumption and exhaust techniques, an improved dual-mass flywheel, secondary oil pump pickup and BMW/Siemens MSS50 engine administration. This took energy to 321hp at 7400rpm and torque now stood at 258lb ft at 3250rpm, with the S50B32 being the primary road-going BMW engine to interrupt the 100hp/litre barrier. For the South African market, the engine was revised barely to have the ability to address the nation’s decrease octane gasoline; completely different pistons had been utilised, decreasing the compression ratio to 10.5:1 and energy dropped to 310hp at 7400rpm with 251lb ft of torque at 3250rpm. For the M3 Evo, the US obtained the S52B32, primarily based on the M52; capability stood at 3152cc due to a bore of 86.4mm and 89.6mm stroke. The engine was fitted with extra finely balanced camshafts, decreased mass valve lifters, springs and spring seats and revised consumption and exhaust techniques. Regardless of these modifications, energy remained unchanged at 240hp at 6000rpm although torque elevated to 236lb ft at 3800rpm; in vehicles fitted with the auto this was restricted to 225lb ft.

BMW M3 engines | E36 M3 tech spec:

S50B30

Capability: 2990cc
Bore: 86mm
Stroke: 85.8mm
Compression ratio: 10.8:1
Max energy: 286hp @ 7000rpm
Max torque: 236lb ft @ 3600rpm
Functions: E36 M3 3.0

S50B32

Capability: 3201cc
Bore: 86.4mm
Stroke: 91mm
Compression ratio: 11.3:1
Max energy: 321hp @ 7400rpm
Max torque: 258lb ft @ 3250rpm
Functions: E36 M3 3.2 Evo, Z3 M Roadster, Z3 M Coupé

S54

Historical past

The three.2-litre S54 is an exhilarating, high-revving, and highly effective naturally aspirated straight-six which remains to be arguably certainly one of BM’s greatest M engines. We’re not the one ones to assume that the S54 is one thing of a masterpiece – in 2001 it took the titles of ‘Greatest New Engine’ and ‘Engine of the Yr’ within the Worldwide Engine of the Yr Awards. It gained the latter award within the 3.0-4.0-litre class for six years straight, proper up till it completed manufacturing in 2006. The S54 is basically BMW’S wildest evolution of the M50 sequence of straight-six engines; regardless of the title, its closest relative is the S50 from the E36 M3, not the M54 as is usually thought. The S54 was not solely fitted to the E46 M3 but additionally featured within the late (2001-2002) Z3 M Coupé and Roadster and the Z4 M Coupé and Roadster as effectively.

In comparison with the S50, the S54 has a barely larger bore, larger compression, drive-by-wire throttle management, a head with a number of enhancements and modifications, and some different touches that led to a much more superior engine. The consequence for European market engines is 343hp and 269lb ft of torque. Essentially the most excessive model of the S54 was discovered within the 2004 E46 M3 CSL; enhancements included a carbon fibre air field, revised cams and a lighter exhaust, which pushed energy to 360hp and 270lb ft.

Technical

The 3246cc S54 was primarily based on the M50 structure, and so its fundamental format and construction are shared in some ways. The bore spacing is similar 91mm as was used for the M50 and M20 earlier than it – it was, subsequently, mandatory to make use of forged iron for the block to retain sufficient cylinder wall energy, as a bore of 87mm leaves little meat between the bores.

The 91mm stroke is one thing that exhibits the extent of engineering that went into the S54. The traditional observe when attempting to provide an engine high-revving traits is to make it oversquare (that means the bore is greater than the stroke). Nevertheless, the S54 manages to be an engine that likes to rev whereas additionally having a protracted stroke, giving it a really torquey nature too.

This lengthy stroke mixed with the high-revving nature of the S54 signifies that piston speeds are exceptionally excessive and the engine has one of many highest piston speeds for any manufacturing engine at 24.25 metres per second; for reference, a 2.4-litre F1 V8 is round 25m/s. This places an enormous quantity of stress on the engine’s internals so steps taken to enhance bottom-end reliability embody a solid crank, solid rods, oil jets to chill the graphite-lined piston skirts, and there’s additionally an oil scavenging pump to forestall oil hunger from occurring  throughout laborious cornering.

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The top is a solid aluminium unit with double-Vanos, that means there’s variable valve timing on each the inlet and exhaust cams. The valves are operated by way of finger-type rocker arms and shimmed tappets. Bolted to the consumption facet you’ll discover six throttle butterflies, operated by a single digital throttle actuator and every with its personal velocity stack contained throughout the air field. The exhaust manifolds are nigh-on equal-length stainless-steel for Euro fashions, with US variations having cats mounted throughout the exhaust manifolds, leading to a 10hp and 7lb ft deficit. The Siemens MSS54 engine administration system is awfully succesful, being pretty much as good as, if not higher, than some aftermarket standalone techniques and also you shouldn’t underestimate its skill to regulate high-power setups.

The aforementioned most excessive model of the S54 was the one discovered within the M3 CSL. Essentially the most noticeable enchancment is the carbon fibre air field, which featured a big inside panel filter and a a lot much less restrictive design to permit better airflow; one other massive plus is that it ends in a really distinctive induction noise. To run this air field, which doesn’t function a MAF sensor, the CSL engine makes use of a MAP (manifold absolute strain) sensor and an appropriately reprogrammed ECU. Extra aggressive camshafts are the opposite efficiency change and collectively they end in 360hp. A calmly revised exhaust manifold made from thinner materials helped to cut back weight.

BMW M3 engines

BMW M3 engines | E46 M3 tech spec:

S54B32(HP)

Capability: 3246cc
Bore: 87mm
Stroke: 91mm
Compression ratio: 11.5:1
Max energy: 343hp @ 7900rpm (360hp)
Max torque: 269lb ft @ 4900rpm (273lb ft @ 4300rpm)
Functions: E46 M3, E46 M3 CSL (HP), E36/7/8 Z3 M Roadster/Coupé, E85/6 Z4 M

S65

Historical past

The S65 V8 was launched within the E9x M3 vary in 2008 in 4.0-litre, 420hp type, and carried on unchanged till manufacturing completed in 2014. In 2010, BMW launched a reworked 4.4-litre model for the restricted version E92 M3 GTS, pushing out 450hp, and this similar engine was additionally used within the E90 M3 CRT in 2011. The S65B40 gained the three.0-4.0-litre class within the Engine of the Yr awards each from 2008-2012, a formidable achievement.

Technical

The S65 is a 3999cc V8 constructed utilizing aluminium-silicon alloy development, which it shares with the S85 V10 from which it’s derived, and it additionally shares a few of that engine’s know-how. On the time of its manufacturing, the S65 was the world’s highest-revving volume-produced V8, with a redline of 8400rpm, and at most revs the engine takes in 400 litres of air per second. Maybe much more spectacular was the truth that regardless of the rise in capability and two extra cylinders over the S54 straight-six
it changed, at 202kg the S65 was really 15kg lighter. Along with that, it was additionally 32mm shorter than the earlier engine,
which could not sound like a lot, however it allowed the V8 to be situated additional again within the engine bay, serving to to enhance the automotive’s weight distribution.

As it’s derived from the S85 V10, it comes as no shock to study that the S65 shares the identical bore at 92mm and stroke at 75.2mm as its bigger cousin, together with double-Vanos and the 12.0:1 compression ratio. Particular person throttle butterflies for every cylinder supply improved response whereas the alternator disconnects from the engine throughout acceleration to maximise energy. BMW moved from a four-pump semi-dry-sump lubrication system within the S85 to a two-pump typical wet-sump association on the S65, additional reducing weight, whereas nonetheless with the ability to cope with as much as 1.4g of cornering and deceleration power.

By way of energy, the S65 develops 420hp at 8300rpm with a torque peak of 295lb ft at 3900rpm, with 251lb ft obtainable from 2000rpm and 85% of the engine’s torque is accessible throughout a 6500rpm vary, making it impressively versatile. For the S65B44 discovered within the GTS and, later, the CRT, BMW upped displacement to 4.4-litres by rising the engine’s stroke to 82mm, which resulted in peak energy of 450hp at 8300rpm and 325lb ft of torque at 3750rpm.

BMW M3 engines

BMW M3 engines | E90/E92 M3 tech spec:

S65B40

Capability: 3999cc
Bore: 92.0mm
Stroke: 75.2mm
Compression ratio: 12.0:1
Max energy: 420hp @ 8300rpm
Max torque: 295lb ft @ 3900rpm
Functions: E9x M3

S65B44

Capability: 4361cc
Bore: 92.0mm
Stroke: 82.0mm
Compression ratio: 12.0:1
Max energy: 450hp @ 8300rpm
Max torque: 325lb ft @ 3750rpm
Functions: E92 M3 GTS, E90 M3 CRT

BMW M3 Engines

S55

Historical past

The S55 was launched in 2014 in each the F80 M3 and F82 M4 fashions and relies on the single-turbo N55, albeit with a raft of modifications on board. Since its launch, it has discovered its manner into the F87 M2 Competitors in a barely de-tuned type, and in barely larger states of tune within the Competitors and CS variations of the M3 and M4, with the most popular model fitted within the M4 GTS.

Technical

The S55 was primarily based on the N55 and utilised 75% of that engine’s parts whereas the remaining 25% had been developed particularly for the S55. At 84mm and 89.6mm, the bore and stroke are the identical as these of the non-M engine giving the S55 the identical capability. BMW M selected to make use of twin-turbos as within the earlier N54, versus the single-turbo association of the N55, and they’re distinctive to the S55, with a light-weight design and digital wastegates. The S55 makes simply 11hp greater than the S65 it changed, although that is produced a lot decrease down the rev vary, between 5500-7300rpm, making it extra accessible. The transfer to compelled induction did imply that the S55 is relatively higher endowed than the S65 within the torque division – the place the naturally aspirated V8 needed to make do with 295lb ft, the identical because the N55, the twin-turbo S55 develops a meaty 406lb ft from 1850-5500rpm, giving it some monster mid-range punch. The engine additionally employs direct injection, Valvetronic, double-Vanos and makes use of a closed-deck crankcase design, which will increase rigidity and permits cylinder strain to be elevated for optimum energy. As a substitute of cylinder liners, the cylinder bores of the S55 function a twin wire arc-sprayed coating, which helps to cut back engine weight and there’s a solid, torsionally-rigid crankshaft, which will increase torque-carrying capability and can be lighter and its decreased rotating mass improves throttle response and acceleration.

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The S55 includes a high-performance cooling system, with a big chargecooler and extra radiators for the water circuits, turbocharger and transmission oil whereas an electrical coolant pump cools the turbos once you flip the engine off. The S55 additionally employs a light-weight magnesium sump that includes a particular cowl to restrict the motion of the oil underneath excessive cornering, and through heavy acceleration and deceleration an oil extraction pump and complex oil return system situated near the turbocharger assist to keep up uninterrupted oil circulation. The exhaust system makes use of an electronically managed flap association situated simply earlier than the rear silencer that reduces again strain. The rise in energy for each the Competitors and CS variations of the M3 and M4 comes courtesy of a software program revision, however for the M4 GTS, BMW added water injection, which in flip allowed enhance strain to be elevated from 1.19 to 1.49 bar thus making extra energy.

BMW M3 engines

BMW M3 engines | F80 M3 tech spec:

S55B30

Capability: 2979cc
Bore: 84mm
Stroke: 89.6mm
Compression ratio: 10.2:1
Max energy: 431hp @ 5500-7300rpm
Max torque: 406lb ft @ 1850-5500rpm (443lb ft)
Functions: F8x M3/4, F87 M2 Competitors (410hp), F8x M3/4 Competitors (450hp), F8x M3/4 CS (460hp), F82 M4 GTS (500hp)

S58

Historical past

The S58 changed the S55 and, very like its predecessor, relies on its non-M variant, on this case the single-turbo straight-six B58. The S58 made its debut within the F97 X3 M and F98 X4 M in 2019 in 480hp type and in its 510hp incarnation for the Competitors fashions earlier than then being fitted to the G8x M3 and M4 in 2021.

Technical

The S58 makes use of a sleeve-free closed-deck design which leads to an especially inflexible crankcase, and this enables for larger compression, whereas a wire-arc sprayed iron coating for the cylinder partitions reduces frictional losses and weight. The S58 makes use of a light-weight solid crankshaft and this discount in rotating mass ends in the engine with the ability to rev extra freely and the crankshaft drive has distinctive torsional resistance, permitting it to higher address larger energy and torque outputs. The cylinder head, in the meantime, has a core manufactured utilizing 3D printing – this course of allows geometric types to be created which might be past the potential of typical steel casting strategies and never solely is the core lighter however it has additionally allowed the coolant ducts to be routed in a manner that optimises temperature administration.

The S58 makes use of two mono-scroll turbos together with an oblique intercooler provided by a low-temperature circuit and particular compressors, which optimise the ability output of the turbos. Its electronically managed wastegate helps to extend turbo response whereas a flow-optimised design reduces the strain losses within the dual-flow air consumption system. The engine makes use of the most recent high-precision injection system which sends gasoline into the combustion chambers at a most strain of 350 bar; this permits shorter injection instances and ends in a extra environment friendly combination preparation. The S58 additionally incorporates Valvetronic variable valve timing and double-Vanos variable camshaft timing.

Environment friendly cooling is important for a high-performance engine just like the S58 and whereas the G8x’s nostril might need are available in for controversy, all these big intakes make sure that the engine will get loads of air. Within the central space behind the kidney grille, the air first encounters the low-temperature radiator after which the high-temperature radiator. Within the decrease space, the airflow can be fed by the horizontally organized engine oil cooler and – within the Competitors fashions – by a separate transmission oil cooler. At low speeds and when there’s a better want for cooling, an electrically powered fan lends a serving to hand.

An electrical coolant pump within the low-temperature system helps to optimise quantity circulate for the intercooler. The high-temperature circuit contains a mechanical water pump, the primary radiator and two distant ones to the edges within the wheel arches. Collectively, these parts provide coolant to the engine block and the 2 turbochargers. A further electrical water pump permits turbocharger cooling to proceed for a sure size of time as soon as the engine has been switched off. Lastly, the oil provide system has been designed with observe driving in thoughts. The engine’s weight-minimised sump has two separate chambers and an built-in suction channel; a further suction stage permits the map-controlled oil pump to attract lubricant from the smaller chamber, which steps in when additional capability is required. This ensures the S58 will get a dependable provide of oil always, even underneath excessive cornering and acceleration.

The S58 makes 480hp at 6250rpm with its 405lb ft torque peak obtainable from 2650-6130rpm whereas the model present in Competitors fashions makes 510hp additionally at 6250rpm whereas its torque peak of 479lb ft spreads from 2750-5500rpm; the S58’s redline is at 7200rpm.

BMW M3 engines

BMW M3 engines | G80 M3 tech spec:

S58B30T0

Capability: 2993cc
Bore: 84mm
Stroke: 90mm
Compression ratio: 9.3:1
Max energy: 480hp @ 6250rpm (510hp)
Max torque: 405lb ft @ 2650-6130rpm (479lb ft @ 2750-5500rpm)
Functions: F97/8 X3/4 M and Competitors, G8x M3/4 and Competitors